From the persecution and hardships he suffered in his life, he came to develop a philosophy, called pansophism, which emphasized political unity, religious reconciliation, and cooperation in education. This philosophy of pansophism related education to everyday life and called for a systematic relationship to be developed for all knowledge. He advocated teaching in the common or vernacular language of students rather than in Latin, and the establishment of a universal system of education with opportunities that included women and peoples of all nations. Throughout his life, John Amos Comenius worked for educational, scientific, and cultural cooperation, enlightenment and understanding.
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 15 Novembertheology, The youngest of five children, Comenius was born into a moderately prosperous family who were devout members of the Bohemian Brethren. His father, Martin, is said to have been a miuller. Alsted, and anti-Aristotelian and a follower of Ramus, had a profound interest in Ramon Lull and Giordano Brunowas a chiliast in theology, and worked for the gathering of all knowledge in his famous Encyclopaedia After completing his studies at Heidelberg in andComenius returned to his native land, where he first taught school; but intwo years after his ordination as a priest of the Bohemian Brethren, he became pastor at Fulnek, His firest publised work, a Latin grammar, dates from these years.
For the next eight years Comenius led an insecure existence, until the final expulsion of the Brethren from the imperial lands and worship restored to them. For the next eight years Comenius led an insecure existence, until the final expulsion of the Brethren from the imperial lands brought him to Leszno, Poland, which he had previously visited to negotiate rights of settlement.
During these years his first wife, Magdalena, and their two children died, and he remarried in Form to Comenius lived at Leszno as bishop of his flock and rector of the local Gymnasium. He also found time to work on the reformation of knowledge and pedagogy, writing, among other things, his first major work, the Didatica magna.
Written in Czech, it was not published untilwhen it appeared in Latin as part of the Opera didactica omnia, which contained most of the works he had wirtten since In Comenius suddenly gained European fame with the publication of his Janua linguarum reserata; an English version, The Gate of Tongues Unlocked and Opened, appeared in the same year.
The Janua presented a simple introduction to Latin according to a new method based on principles derived from Wolfgang Ratke and from the primers produced by the Spanish Jesuits of Salamanca.
The reform of language learning, by making it speedier and easier for all, was characteristic of that general reformation of mankind and the world which all chiliasts sought to bring about in the eleventh hour before the return of Christ to rule on earth. He was invited to remain permanently in England, and there were plans for the establishment of a pansophic college.
But the Irish Rebellion soon put an end to all these optimistic plans, although Comenius stayed until June While in London he wrote the Via lucis, which circulated in manuscript in England but was not published until at Amsterdam. In the meantime Comenius had offers from Richelieu to continue his pansophic work in Paris, but he accepted instead an earlier On his way there he visited Descartes near Leiden, minds.
Descartes thought comenius confused philosapppertain to philosophy I go not; mine therefore is that only in part, whereof yours is the whole.
The chancellor, Axel Oxenstierna, wanted him to work on useful books for the schools; Comenius, at the urging of his English friends, proposed to work on pansophy.
He worked on both, retiring to Elbing, Prussia then under Swedish rulebetween and Or lumen divinuem reformatate synopsis Leipzig,appeared in the same year.
Inhaving returned to Leszno, Comenius became the twentieth—and last—presiding bishop of the Bohemian Brethren later reconstituted as the Moravian Brethren.
He introduced many reforms into the pansophic school there; but in spite of much hard work, he met with little success, and in he returned to Leszno. In the meantime Comenius had prepared one of his best-known and most charateristic works, the Orbis sensualium pictuswith Latin and German text.
The first school book consistently to use pictures of things in the learning of languages, it illustrated a principle that was fundamental to Comenius: Words must go with things and cannot properly be learned apart from them.
They were only too willing to listen to optimistic predictions of apocalyptic events and sudden reversals to occur in the near future, such as the fall of the House of Hapsburg or the end of popery and the Roman church. Comenius lost all his books and manuscripts and was again forced into exile.
He was invited to settle at Amsterdam, where he spent the remaining years of his life at the house of Lawrence de Geer, the son of his former patron. During these years he completed the great work that had occupied him for at least twenty years, De rerum humanarum emendatione consultatio catholica, a seven- part work summing up his lifelong and all-embracing deliberations on the improvement of human things.
Although some parts of the work were published as late asit was presumed lost until latewhen it was found in the Francke Stiftung in Halle. It was first published in its entirety in Comenius was buried in the Walloon church at Naarden, near Amsterdam. His thought was highly esteemed by German Pietists in the eighteenth century.
In his own country Comenius occupies a place of eminence both as a national hero and as a literary artist. The universal aims were piety, virtue, and wisdom; to be wise was to excel in all three.
His beliefs and aspirations were shared by many of his contemporaries, but his system was certainly the most comprehensive of the many that were offered in the seventeenth century. It was essentially a prescription for salvation through knowledge raised to the level of universal wisdom, or pansophy, supported by a corresponding program of education.
Since God is hidden behind his work, man must turn to the threefold revelation before him: Thus, all that man needs to know and not know must be learned from three diving books: For the achievement of this education man has been supplied with his senses, his reason, and faith.
This familiar macrocosm-microcosm doctrine gives assurance that man is indeed capable of hitherto unrealized wisdom; each individual thus becomes a pansophist, a little god. Heathens, lacking the revealed word, cannot attain this wisdom; even Christians have until recently been lost in a labyrinth of error handed on by tradition and authority in a flood of books that at best contain piecemeal knowledge.
Comenius was not a humanist:This ideology forms the basis of the federal Race to the Top funding and the No Child Left Behind mandates (Schiro, ). Comparing and Contrasting the Learner Centered and the Social Efficiency Ideologies of Education. The main focus of the Leaner Centered ideology is on the learner.
Dr. Nkrumah shows how his philosophical beliefs are related to special problems of “the African revolution,” and states his case for socialism as the most valid expression of the African conscience at the present time. is about something and he wants to know what gadfly stung the great thinkers and how their thought grew from the life.
In this regard, his theory of "consciencism" is the most central. Nkrumah saw Africa pulled by the three religious value systems represented by indigenous tradition, Islam, and European Christianity.
This is what Nkrumah saw as the crisis of African "conscience.".
The philosophical doctrine that stems from the category of thought associated with ideas is ‘idealism’ – the notion that ideas represent reality. Idealism originates with Plato, the third-century BC thinker, who believed that there is an objective truth.
Many major historical figures in philosophy have provided an answer to the question of what, if anything, makes life meaningful, although they typically have not put it in these terms. John Amos Comenius The Moravian theologian and educational reformer John Amos Comenius () is often called the father of modern education.
John Amos Comenius was born on Mar. 28, , in southeastern Moravia.