References and Further Reading 1. Two Kinds of Natural Law Theory At the outset, it is important to distinguish two kinds of theory that go by the name of natural law.
Sermon on the MountThe New Commandmentand Ministry of Jesus Christian ethics in general has tended to stress the need for love, gracemercyand forgiveness because of sin. With divine assistance, the Christian is called to become increasingly virtuous in both thought and deed, see also the Evangelical counsels.
Conversely, the Christian is also called to abstain from vice. They begin with the notion of inherent sinfulness, which requires essential atonement.
Sin is estrangement from God which is the result of not doing God's will. God's will can be summed up by the precept: Christian ethics are founded upon the concept of grace which transforms a person's life and enable's one to choose and act righteously. Christian ethics has a teleological aspect—all ethical behavior is oriented towards a vision of the Kingdom of God —a righteous society where all live in peace and harmony with God and nature, as envisioned in the Book of Isaiah.
Christian ethics is not substantially different from Jewish ethicsexcept in the exhortation to love one's enemy. Understanding these commands as part of a larger campaign makes it impossible to interpret Christian ethics as an individual ethic.
Other tenets include maintaining personal integrity and the absence of hypocrisy, as well as honesty and loyalty, mercy and forgiveness, rejection of materialism and the desire for wealth and power, and teaching others in your life through personal joy, happiness and Godly devotion.
Aquinas adopted the four cardinal virtues of Aristotle justice, courage, temperance and prudenceand added to them the Christian virtues of faith, hope and charity from St. Paul, 1 Corinthians Other schema include the Seven Deadly Sins and the Seven virtues. For more see Christian philosophy and Biblical law in Christianity.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism emphasize the maintenance and propriety of relationships as the most important consideration in ethics.
To be ethical is to do what one's relationships require. Notably, though, what you owe to another person is inversely proportional to their distance from you.
In other words, you owe your parents everything, but you are not in any way obligated towards strangers. This can be seen as a recognition of the fact that it is impossible to love the entire world equally and simultaneously. This is called relational ethics, or situational ethics.
The Confucian system differs very strongly from Kantian ethics in that there are rarely laws or principles which can be said to be true absolutely or universally. This is not to say that there has never been any consideration given to universalist ethics.
In fact, in Zhou Dynasty China, the Confucians' main opponents, the followers of Mozi argued for universal love Chinese: The Confucian view eventually held sway, however, and continues to dominate many aspects of Chinese thought. Many have argued, for example, that Mao Zedong was more Confucian than Communist.
Confucianism, especially of the type argued for by Mencius Chinese: In other words, the ideal ruler does not go out and force the people to become good, but instead leads by example. The ideal ruler fosters harmony rather than laws. Confucius stresses honesty above all.
He codified traditional practice and actually changed the meaning of the prior concepts that those words had meant. His model of the Confucian family and Confucian ruler dominated Chinese life into the early 20th century.
This had ossified by then into an Imperial hierarchy of rigid property rightshard to distinguish from any other dictatorship. Traditional ethics had been perverted by legalism. Buddhist influence[ edit ] Buddhism, and specifically Mahayana Buddhismbrought a cohesive metaphysic to Chinese thought and a strong emphasis on universalism.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message Laozi Lao Tzu and other Taoist Daoist authors argued for an even greater passivity on the part of rulers than did the Confucians. For Laozi, Lao Tzu the ideal ruler is one who does virtually nothing that can be directly identified as ruling.
Clearly, both Daoism and Confucianism presume that human nature is basically good. Taoist ethics ask for a greater sense of being and less identification with the act of doing.That he was thinking of an internal ‘binding force’ is indicated, however, The tale of the origin of the universe, including human nature, There are two questions worth exploring here.
One concerns the role that Plato assigns to measure in his late concept of ethics. Secondly, there is the question of how serious Plato is about such. Nature is the universe, not simply green nature, the animals or the environment of the planet.
Universal Cosmic Natural Moral Law is sourced from the cosmic forces of creation. Which force do you want to align yourself with? Karma and Behavioral Consequence are specific Universal Cosmic Natural Moral Laws that apply to human beings. The problems hitherto mentioned belong to general, or theoretical, ethics, and their investigation in nearly all cases bear upon the natural law, whose origin, nature, subject- matter, obligation, and properties it is the scope of ethics to explain thoroughly and verify.
The Concept of Ethics and Morals as the Binding Force and Essential Nature of the Universe ( words, 4 pages) The Pre-Socratic philosophers, also known as the Naturalists, theorized that there must be an essential matter to the universe, and they attributed this to various elements.
From the beginning of the Abrahamic faiths and of Greek philosophy, religion and morality have been closely intertwined. This is true whether we go back within Greek philosophy or within Christianity and Judaism and Islam. The nature of morality: why ethics in business matter.
Online video activities. Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room – Trailer. Concept: Virtue ethics; Aristotle. Clip description: An interview with Noam Chomsky on the nature of s ocialism.