Although Turkey offers many famous markets known as "bazaars" in English, the Turkish word "pazar" refers to an outdoor market held at regular intervals, not a permanent structure containing shops. The Arabic term, souk souq or suk is a synonym for bazaar in Arab-speaking countries.
The city has today become an engine of growth, the main job provider. However, our cities remain ill-prepared to address the problems of poverty.
Planning and governance continues to be the preserve of the politician-mafia-bureaucrat nexus. Whatever policy that does exist is poorly implemented.
There is unabated official and social hostility towards the informal sector, even though the formal sector has ceased to grow, having reached saturation point.
As the cost of creating jobs in the informal sector is very low, it needs to be integrated into the context of the overall macro-economy. Every social system must cater to the needs of its members to enable them to survive; it must have effective means of allocating and distributing resources.
The vendors provide a wide array of goods and commodities to the urban populace at reasonable prices and convenient locations. The type of goods they sell makes an interesting study — from daily needs like vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and snacks to occasional needs like flowers and readymade garments.
A survey conducted by the Indian Institute of Health and Hygiene counted types of eatables sold by the hawkers of Calcutta. The middle and lower class consumer specifically prefers to purchase from them, though even well-off citizens purchase many commodities given reasonable prices.
Vending has been a profession since time immemorial, with street vendors an integral part of our urban history and culture.
Shopping and marketing, in a traditional Indian sense, has primarily been informal. Social interaction is integral to Indian markets in contrast to the mechanized and sterile concept of shopping favoured by modern market and super market structures.
Vendors exhibit remarkable entrepreneurial skills. Purchasing of commodities is no easy task with constant market fluctuations. Besides, middlemen have a major say in the wholesale markets. Commodities have to be in sync with both consumer tastes and paying capacity.
As most vendors deal in perishables, the goods have to be sold at the right time. Studies show that the largest concentration of vendors is in the age group years. It indicates that vending involves enormous physical labour.
The marketing place is invariably far from his residence. Bringing large sacks of vegetables and fruits and loading them in a rickshaw cart is a tedious job.
Arranging, cleaning, sorting, weighing and dealing with customers is not easy.
Hawkers are on the move from one lane to another irrespective of the heat, wind, rain and cold. Calling out loud to attract buyers, consumes time and energy. Indian social institutions show an uncanny ability to adjust and adapt to changing societal conditions.
Our agriculture is organized around the family mode of production, with the entire family engaged in various stages of agricultural production, i. The same system has crept into urban areas; it is not uncommon to find the entire family involved in the micro-enterprise. Thus, on a roadside tea stall, while the husband looks after customers, the wife prepares tea and snacks, and children wash utensils.
The same is true for vegetable and fish vendors where the husband purchases commodities while the wife sells. Nevertheless, our planners remain oblivious to the role of vendors who are victimised, harassed, marginalized and pushed from one area to another.
Rolling stones gather no moss; so it is with the hawkers. Pushed to the city in search of employment, they take to vending as self employment for it is an easier option, perhaps the most promising avenue for the poor. Many vendors were erstwhile workers, who after the closure of mills and factories took to vending.
Some are victims of displacement caused by developmental projects. Sometimes they are survivors of natural disasters. Often they are simply looking for work. Vendors are regularly subjected to mental and physical pressures by city officials.
At times this has led to riotous situations, loss of property, or monetary loss. No wonder, weekly markets struggle to survive and natural markets are ignored. The policy statements of the regional development authorities talk of making provision for trading and commercial activities, which unfortunately is interpreted as making provision for rich traders and big business.INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Organization is a set of people working together for accomplishment of a common objective.
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A bazaar is a permanently enclosed marketplace or street where goods and services are exchanged or sold. The term originates from the Persian word benjaminpohle.com term bazaar is sometimes also used to refer to the "network of merchants, bankers and craftsmen" who work in that benjaminpohle.comgh the current meaning of the word is believed to have originated in Persia, its use has spread and now has been.
Purpose. This work is meant to provide a guide to the freshwater fishes of Iran. There are no modern keys to this fauna, some available books are incomplete or cursory treatments or outdated, and the detailed and diverse scientific literature is widely scattered in time, languages and journals.