The Neolithic Revolution began when people started to practice farming.
The oldest evidence for agriculture comes from the eastern Mediterranean Levant where agriculture came into practice 11, years ago at the end of, or shortly after, the Younger Dryas cold interval during which much of the region was not inhabited Alley.
An abrupt shift to warmer climate then allowed the cereal grasses and trees to expand from the Levant, taking about 1, years to reach Iran Hole, As this expansion of natural vegetation took place, agriculture spread with it.
The domestication of goats and sheep, on the other hand, occurred in northern Mesopotamia and the Zagros mountains, perhaps in Kurdistan and southern Anatolia Zeder.
The combination of agriculture wheat, barley, lentils and the raising of livestock goats, sheep, cattle, pigsformed the basis of the agricultural economy that has lasted until today and spread throughout the world Harris et al. The Neolithic began in Iran about 10, years before the present B. The earliest Neolithic occurred before the use of hand-made, chaff-tempered pottery which appeared around 8, B.
The Neolithic ends with the appearance of new styles of pottery, generally with designs painted in black on a buff background. The Neolithic occurred when temperature and rainfall were somewhat higher than today so that conditions for primitive farming, employing only hand tools for cultivation, were excellent.
All known Neolithic sites in Iran were situated in regions where rain-fed agriculture was possible. Settlements were few and often widely separated, usually in locales with a good source of water, arable land, fuel, as well as wild plant and animal foods, which people continued to gather and hunt Bernbeck, ; Hole, a; b.
A typical settlement consisted of only inhabitants who lived in houses of unbaked brick, or in tents or brush shelters, and kept their livestock in pens. The form of the houses and their nucleation into small settlements has characterized rural villages until the present, some 9, years after they first appeared.
During the Neolithic there is no apparent evidence of social differentiation among individuals, nor are there temples or other special structures Bernbeck, The early Neolithic 10, B. Crude figurines of sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, cattle, and people were often made of unbaked clay Daems.
Well after the introduction of agriculture and the building of villages, clay was first used to make chaff-tempered pottery vessels. People sometimes wore bracelets, pendants, and beaded skirts, pierced their lips with labrets, and displayed deliberately deformed skulls Hole,p.
Burials were normally placed under the floors of houses or in an open part of the settlement, usually within the walls of an abandoned house.
Tools for harvesting crops, butchering, working hides, and other tasks were made from flint, while grinding stones, mortars, and pestles were made from limestone. Native pure copper from the central Iranian plateau was hammered into beads and pins.
Obsidian from central Anatolia, turquoise from Afghanistan, and shells from the Persian Gulf, all are found in Neolithic sites, indicating widespread contacts through trade and other means. Our knowledge of the Neolithic comes largely from the central Zagros mountain valleys and adjacent lowlands, although future exploration and excavation will undoubtedly enlarge this picture, particularly in southern and northeastern Iran.
The lowland edge of the Mesopotamian plain, Khuzestan and Deh Luran, has produced the most informative and most complete sequences of the Neolithic in Iran.
The region of Kurdistan, on the other hand, has a number of important early Neolithic sites in the territory of twentieth-century Iraq.
Most of central Iran is too arid and the mountain zones are either too rugged or too high to support agriculture. Early farmers were therefore concentrated in the flat, mid-level and lower valleys of the Zagros where conditions were most favorable. There has been little excavation of neighboring Afghanistan, but Neolithic sites in Central Asia and northeastern Iran begin a thousand years later than in western Iran.
The principal regions are the northern, the central, and the southern Zagros, the Khuzestan lowland, southern Iran, and the northeastern Kopet Dag region. Most of southern Iran, which is likely to have been important in the Neolithic, has not been sufficiently investigated, a situation that also pertains to much of the northeast.
Outside Iran proper, Turkmenistan shares much with northeastern Iran, while Afghanistan, potentially important, has seen little exploration. To the west of Iran, Kurdistan in both contemporary Iraq and Turkey figures importantly in our story. The land of Iraq east of the Tigris holds Neolithic sites comparable with those on the Iranian side.
Only a handful of Neolithic sites have been excavated and published in sufficient detail to inform on the process of Neolithization and its regional variations. Pre-pottery sites in the lowland at the base of the Zagros and possibly in the Luristan mountains are probably numerous but, because of burial or erosion by geological processes, such sites may have disappeared from view Brookes, Dennell, and Levine; Kirkby.
Lowland of western Iran: When Ali Kosh and Chogha Sefid were excavated in andthey revealed the longest continuous sequence of Neolithic occupations and the oldest substantial evidence for agriculture and animal husbandry in Iran Hole, ; Hole, Flannery, and Neelyalthough recent information places the domestication of goats at Ganj Dareh, which is some years older Zeder and Hesse.
Ali Kosh has three phases of occupation, two of which occurred before the use of pottery, while Chogha Sefid, with one pre-pottery phase, extends the series into the Chalcolithic.
These are followed by three pottery Neolithic phases, denoted by changes in the type and style of the ceramic wares, along with gradual changes in flint tools and house construction. The developments appear to be entirely locally engendered, although some pottery is of types that are found in the mountain plains, presumably arriving in Deh Luran by trade or through visits by travelers Hole, a, p.
The people of Deh Luran farmed around the edge of seasonally wet or marshy areas, raised goats and sheep, and hunted gazelles and onagers.
During the course of the Neolithic a number of new villages were established in response to population increase Neely and Wright, p. The Neolithic comes to an end with the intrusion of new techniques of making pottery and the introduction of irrigation agriculture by people who may have migrated in from nearby Iraq Hole,pp.The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
The way we live today, settled in homes, close to other people in towns and cities, protected by laws, eating food grown on farms, and with leisure time to learn, explore and invent is all a result of the Neolithic revolution, which occurred approximately 11,, years ago.
Learn global regents review with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of global regents review flashcards on Quizlet. In China: Neolithic Period often characterized as the “Neolithic Revolution” was in progress in China by at least the 6th millennium benjaminpohle.compments during the Chinese Neolithic Period (New Stone Age) were to establish some of the major cultural dimensions of the subsequent Bronze Age.
The archaeological understanding of the Neolithic Revolution (or First Agricultural Revolution) has changed significantly since research on the subject first began in the early 20th century.
This change from hunter-gatherer groups to agrarian communities seems to have occurred around 12, years ago, and with it came huge population growth. Around , BC, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70, BC, during the Middle Paleolithic period the last ice age began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established.
The Escoural Cave has evidence of human activity starting in the Middle Palaeolithic, with an estimated date of 50, years BP.