It is generally accepted that group cohesion and performance are associated.
Because each speech act could be performed using a variety of different linguistic forms that vary greatly in terms of illocutionary force, this lack of information puts learners, particularly EFL learners with little target language exposure, at a disadvantage in terms of acquiring pragmatic competence.
The following discussion deals with three major areas of metapragmatic information: Terms such as formal and informal, polite and impolite are used throughout all eight texts, though descriptions of situations which may require formal or polite usage in terms of social relationships between interlocutors, status differences, or other contextual factors are rarely included.
The richest grammar book in terms of metalinguistic and metapragmatic information is Intermediate grammar: From form to meaning and use.
Also included in Intermediate grammar: From form to meaning and use, is discussion of different forms in realizing speech acts requesting, complaining, etc. In addition to the formality discussions characteristic of grammar metalanguage, it includes directives relevant to polite expression as well as warnings against rudeness: Imperatives can easily sound rude or angry, depending on the situation and your tone of voice.
Please helps to soften a command. Using modals such as would and could is a more polite and indirect way to tell someone to do something.
From form to meaning and use,p. The majority of politeness commentary co-occurs with lessons on modals, and in some cases, specific sections on social modals. In Understanding and Using English Grammar, students are asked to decide "which sentence is stronger"p.
From form to meaning and use includes a significant amount of metapragmatic information concerning the use of social modals: Modals also called modal auxiliaries change the meaning of the main verb in many ways.
Modals are used to make requests, ask for permission, ask for advice, and offer suggestions. They also express what is necessary or not necessary, and what is not allowed.
Social modals express politeness, formality, and authority in different kinds of social situations. Often there are several modals you can use in a particular situation. The modal you choose can make what you say sound more polite or less polite, more formal or less formal.
Your situation and your relationship to the listener may help you decide which modal to choose. Consider, for example, how well you know the listener.
Is there a difference in your ages? Is one of you in a position of greater authority or power? Is one of you the boss? In Interchange 2, samples of language for refusing a request are given without any mention to the significant differences in utterances in terms of illocutionary force see Figure 1 below.
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